В.Ю. Катасонов о диктате американских банкиров в англоязычной версии статьи «Вашингтон пытается командовать банками Европы».
If not every week, so every month the world’s media have reported that U.S. authorities have fined another European bank. Most of the victims — renowned banks. Barclays type orHSBC of the City of London. This is a brand new trend in the banking world, which clearly defines the end of the last decade. What lies behind it?
Extraterritorial laws — the basis of the global banking dictate the United States.And before it happened that the banks fined or otherwise sanctioned by the central banks, tax authorities, other government departments and organizations. But to punish only «their», those who passed in the column of «residence.» «Non-residents», ie, Foreign banks no one, including the U.S. government, do not touch him. Around since 2009, Washington has picked up foreign (primarily European) banks have convicted them of violating any U.S. laws. And demanding payment for these violations multimillion-dollar fines to the Treasury United States.
Since the end of the last century, the United States began to actively make laws having extraterritorial actions not only. That is, their performance became mandatory for citizens and companies in the U.S., but also in other countries. This, above all, the various acts establishing a regime of economic and other sanctions against individual countries in the world. Next, the so-called Patriot Act, which was passed hastily after the events of 11.09.2001. Officially, he was declared a tool in the fight against terrorism both within the U.S. and globally. In the list of extraterritorial laws and various regulations aimed at combating drug trafficking, organized crime, corruption, and tax evasion in the U.S. Treasury, money «dirty» money, etc. Originally extraterritorial laws were aimed at non-resident categories such as individual citizens of other states and foreign trade companies (eg, companies that trade with the countries included in the «black list» of Washington).
For foreign banks, the first large-scale sanctions against Washington began to apply them in the middle of the last decade. They concerned the fact that at the direction of the U.S. government the largest U.S. banks, which ensured dollar bills in foreign banks began to close correspondent accounts of the past. Was dealing with the banks, which were known to or suspected of illegal activities, including money laundering «dirty» money, financing of terrorism, etc. It is noteworthy that especially many were closed correspondent accounts of Russian banks. No specific facts of the Russian banks in illegal operations, U.S. banks and the U.S. government did not show. The reason for closing the corresponding accounts were only a «suspicion» and «fear.» However, U.S. officials have long been used to treat without the necessary facts and evidence. According to the then President of the Association of Regional Banks «Russia» Alexander Murichev, only for the period from spring 2004 to spring 2005 were closed U.S. correspondent accounts of about 300 Russian banks.
Swiss precedents.In the second half of the last decade, the U.S. government come to grips with the Swiss banks. On suspicion is that many thousands of U.S. citizens holding money in them, from which no taxes have been paid into the U.S. Treasury. U.S. authorities have demanded that the Swiss Bankers information on U.S. clients that are in conflict with the laws of Switzerland, which has for decades provided the «iron» bank secrecy. Without going into details, let us note that Washington not only managed to crack the vaunted Swiss bank secrecy of the republic, but also begin to penalize those banks, which have been found U.S. tax «deviants.» In the U.S. Treasury has been refunded previously unpaid taxes on $ 5.5 billion (as of early 2013). Plus, this is one of the largest Swiss banksUBSpaid to the U.S. Treasury $ 780 million fine. This penalty served as a precedent, then the Swiss banks for tax sheltering fined by U.S. authorities repeatedly.
One recent case involved a private bank in SwitzerlandWegelin, one of the oldest in Switzerland (founded in 1741). The bank was suspected that there were more than 100 U.S. clients who kept in secret accounts allegedly $ 1.2 billion According to some reports, these customers previously had kept their money in UBS and fled to Wegelin, when Americans began a siege of the first bank . Following the Court of representatives of the bank Wegelin agreed to pay at the beginning of this year, the fine to the U.S. authorities. Amount of the fine amounted to 57.8 million dollars. In addition, bankers announced that the financial institution will soon cease to exist as a bank. Most interesting is that Wegelin (unlike UBS and other major Swiss banks) did not have any business in the U.S. and was confident of its security. Fine imposed on Wegelin, created a dangerous precedent that would allow U.S. authorities to pursue any bank in the world, where it may be at least one «tax shirker» of American origin.
This will be all the more easy to do in the near future due to the fact that the U.S. has entered into force the Law «On Foreign Account Tax» (Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act — FATCA). The main objective of the declared officially FATCA — prevention of evasion of natural and legal persons from paying U.S. taxes. Means of realizing this goal — the transformation of the U.S. authorities of foreign banks into agents of the U.S. tax authorities. In case of violation of foreign banks of their obligations under the law of tax agents FATCA against such banks and their clients will be taken strict measures. Chief among them — hold 30% of all cash payments to foreign banks, which will pass through correspondent accounts in U.S. banks, and the subsequent transfer to the U.S. Treasury.
HSBC, or the British precedent.Were also actively penalized British and Dutch banks. The causes and reasons are different. For example, the charges of having links with drug trafficking and laundering of «dirty» money. The most resonant story involves a British bankHSBC. In the middle of last year, international media reported that the bank will have to pay the United Statesthere 1.5billion dollars in fines for insufficient control over their clients, and money laundering. Under the «lack of control» refers to the bank through its regional offices, «daughter», representative worked with drug traffickers in Mexico. NewspaperThe Telegraphresulted in data showing that only in 2007-2008 through the various structures of British bank in Mexico, the U.S. has transferred $ 7 billion. Experts in the «shadow» of the economy and money «dirty» money rightly draw attention to the fact that U.S. banks have a much larger scale «services» to the drug business in the United States and Mexico than HSBC and other European banks. In this case, the resident banks are not subject to punishment or penalty is much softer than for European banks. Thus, after one of the largest banks in the United States, «Wachovia«(Wachovia) in 2010 admitted to launder 378 billion dollars of cash to the bank was fined a total of about $ 160 million.
Rothschild banks in the «black list» of Washington.Washington has beco
me increasingly impose sanctions on European banks that have operations directly with the states included in the «black» lists. The sanctions followed in cases of indirect (indirect) violation when banks were dealing with companies and banks that are already working directly with rogue states. That is, Washington tries to expand the coverage of foreign banks offenders. In the «black lists» of the United States, many European hit. In 2012, the U.S. financial regulator began an audit ofDeutsche Bankin the United States because of suspected violations of economic sanctions against Iran. Investigators suspect that the Deutsche Bank until 2008, on behalf of the Iranian contractors conducted financial transactions in the United States. Check due to similar accusations were conducted in the same time, European banks such asABN Amro, Barclays, Credit Suisse, Lloyds and ING.Earlier charges of violating the economic sanctions were brought against two British banks HSBC and Standard Chartered, belonging to the Rothschild empire. For example, the Financial Controller of New York has accused the beginning of August 2012 the British bank «Standard Chartered»(Standard Chartered Bank — SCB) in illegal transactions with Iran. «For nearly 10 years,» Standard Chartered «was the scheme with the Government of Iran and hid from regulators about 60 thousand secret transactions in the amount of at least $ 250 billion, which brought» Standard Chartered «hundreds of millions of dollars of commissions, — the Office of Financial Services of New York State. — Actions «Standard Chartered» did the U.S. financial system vulnerable to terrorists, arms dealers, drug bosses and corrupt regimes and deprived of police investigators crucial information used to track all kinds of criminal activity. » August 14, 2012, «Standard Chartered» reached an agreement out of court settlement with the Office of Financial Services of New York State, under which the bank agreed to pay a fine of 340 million dollars.
Penalties for «manipulation».In the summer of 2012 began with a scandal not less eminent British bankBarclays. Only reason was different — a charge the bank by the U.S. authorities of involvement in the machinations in determining the inter-bank lending rate of LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rates). An estimated charging party, the British bank on these manipulations has earned a lot of money. The bank paid in 2012 to U.S. authorities $ 438 million fine. It was found that in addition to such machinations Barclays takes a total of about two dozen banks with big names. Although the list includes U.S. banks (Citigroup and JPMorgan Chase), The majority of offenders — European banks. In fact, the manipulation of interest rates are coordinated based on collusion banks in Europe and the U.S.. We are talking about a giant banking cartel.
Barclays Bank had not recover from the scandal involving the manipulation of LIBOR, as it in America has fallen another attack. The fact that Barclays (as well as many other major U.S. and European banks) have long turned into a financial conglomerate, which is engaged in speculative activities in different markets — both financial and commodity. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission United States (FERC) ordered the British financial conglomerate Barclays to pay a fine for the manipulation of electricity prices in the state of California. «The manipulation of the energy market starts too expensive — the chairman of FERC, the Democratic senator from Oregon Ron Weider. — Consumers have the right to heat and illuminate their homes without fear that traders play against them in order to obtain an unfair profit.» Barclays and traders have to pay the U.S. Treasury a total of 453 million dollars in fines. In addition, the British bank must allocate 34.9 million of its profits to fund programs that are designed to reduce the cost of electricity for low-income consumers in the states of California, Arizona, Oregon and Washington.
What are the goals of the American banking decree?The most common version of the answer to the question of the purpose of the U.S. banking racket is this: the U.S. authorities to seek additional sources of revenue for the budget. However, this version is not very convincing. Even if we assume that foreign banks may learn from fines up to ten billion dollars a year, it will be only a drop in the bucket (tax revenues to the federal budget of the United States in 2012 amounted to about 2.5 trillion. Dollars).
Another version — Washington’s support of U.S. banks in their competition with European banks. And also (in the longer term), the gradual transfer of all foreign banks under the direct control of the United States. Indeed, it is visible to the naked eye that the U.S. authorities are pursuing a policy of «double» standards, punishing for the same violations more severely European banks (compared to the U.S.). In fact, during the current campaign in Washington for tougher sanctions against European banks may notice «undercover», not the media publicized struggle between the clans of the Rockefellers and the Rothschilds. The most severe sanctions are primarily banks of the sphere of influence of the Rothschilds:«Standard Chartered», «Barclays»HSBC,
«Deutsche Bank», «Royal Bank of Scotland» (RBS)and other prominent banks with rich histories. In Europe, the banks — the «sacred cows», and here in the U.S., where the influence of the Rockefeller obvious to these financial institutions are without proper reverence and respect.
There is a gradual move operations of European banks (together with its customers) to other regions of the world, which has not yet reached the long arm of Washington. Experts refer to as the «alternate aerodromes» especially such countries and territories such as Israel, India, Singapore, Hong Kong. It is easy to see that it is the regions in which the influence of the Rothschilds have always been dominant. However, you can almost certainly say that the next target of the U.S. government will be banks and banking operations of these particular countries. The world is moving inexorably towards a new financial order.
Valentin Y. Katasonov,
Professor, Doctor of Economics, Chairman of the Russian Economic Society them. S.F.Sharapova